You do not a lot. You do not need a garden. All you need is the following:
1. a container with holes in the bottom of it
3. a seed (or more)
5. a label (so that you know what you've planted)
Although I personally have a bit of an addiction to buying seeds in shops and swapping them with friends, you can also get them from an organic vegetable. For example, pumpkins, tomatoes, and peppers have loads of them. Put them in a pot with the above and see what happens.
Sometimes Dutch supermarkets give you free seeds but otherwise you can buy them in shops or online.
Grow something you like to eat
Most vegetables need to be started between March and June. Below is a guide on when to plant things and if you buy your seeds it will tell you on the packet.
Make sure your pot has plenty of sun (about 6 hours)
Put your finger on the soil, if it sticks to your hand you need to give it a bit of water.
If the plant is producing fruit you may want to give it some more during this time.